Honors Biology

       

Honors Biology

Differentiated Lesson Plan

Subject: Biology                                Grade: 9-12

IMPORTANT DATES:

Ø  NINE WEEKS EXAM FRIDAY. MAR 9

Ø  Scientific Research and Symposium Wednesday, Mar 14

UNIT 4:  Genetics 
Chapter 11:  Introduction to Genetics
Chapter 12:  DNA and RNA
Chapter 13:  Genetic Engineering
Chapter 14:  The Human Genome    Time Frame: Jan 8- Jan 26, 2007  

Content:

The student

Ø  Compare the different kinds of mutations that can occur in DNA

Ø  Interpret a pedigree

Ø  Identify human genetic disorders

Ø  Evaluate the importance of plant and animal breeding to humans

Ø  Predict the outcome of a test cross.

Ø  Learn the genetic basis of ABO blood types

Ø  Explain the pattern of sex-linked inheritance

Ø  Differentiate between co dominance, and in complete dominance

 

Section 11-1: The Work of Gregor Mendel
 The principle of dominance states that some alleles are dominant and others are recessive.
 When each F1 plant flowers, the two alleles are segregated from each other so that each gamete carries only a single copy of each gene. Therefore, each F1 plant produces two types of gametes—those with the allele for tallness and those with the allele for shortness.
Section 11-2: Probability and Punnett Squares
 The principles of probability can be used to predict the outcomes of genetic crosses.
Section 11-3: Exploring Mendelian Genetics
 The principle of independent assortment states that genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
 Some alleles are neither dominant nor recessive, and many traits are controlled by multiple alleles or multiple genes.
Section 11-4: Meiosis
 Meiosis is a process of reduction division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
 Mitosis results in the production of two genetically identical diploid cells, whereas meiosis produces four genetically different haploid cells.
Section 11-5: Linkage and Gene Maps
 The chromosomes assort independently; individual genes do not. 

Chapter 12

Describe the structure and replication of DNA,

 the processes of transcription and translation,

 the regulation of gene expression.

Chap 13

 13-1: Changing the Living World
 Humans use selective breeding to pass desired traits on to the next generation of organisms.
 Breeders can increase the genetic variation in a population by inducing mutations, which are the ultimate source of genetic variability.
Section 13-2: Manipulating DNA
 Scientists use their knowledge of the structure of DNA and its chemical properties to study and change DNA molecules. Different techniques are used to extract DNA from cells, to cut DNA into smaller pieces, to identify the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule, and to make unlimited copies of DNA.
 Knowing the sequence of an organism's DNA allows researchers to study specific genes, to compare them with the genes of other organisms, and to try to discover the functions of different genes and gene combinations.
Section 13-3: Cell Transformation
 During transformation, a cell takes in DNA from outside the cell. This external DNA becomes a part of the cell's DNA.
 If transformation is successful, the recombinant DNA is integrated into one of the chromosomes of the cell.
Section 13-4: Applications of Genetic Engineering
 Using the basic techniques of genetic engineering, a gene from one organism can be inserted into cells from another organism. These transformed cells can then be used to grow new organisms.

Chap 14

 14-1: Human Heredity
 All egg cells carry a single X chromosome (23X). However, half of all sperm cells carry an X chromosome (23X), and half carry a Y chromosome (23Y). This ensures that just about half of the zygotes will be 46XX (female), and half will be 46XY (male).
 In both cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease, a small change in the DNA of a single gene affects the structure of a protein, causing a serious genetic disorder.
Section 14-2: Human Chromosomes
 Males have just one X chromosome. Thus, all X-linked alleles are expressed in males, even if they are recessive.
 Nondisjunction causes gametes to have abnormal numbers of chromosomes, which in turn causes a chromosome number disorder.
Section 14-3: Human Molecular Genetics
 The Human Genome Project is an attempt to sequence all human DNA.
 In gene therapy, an absent or faulty gene is replaced by a normal, working gene.

 

Process:

Ø  Word wall: vocabulary words the unit

Ø  Read Unit 4 chap 11,12,13 & 14 when assigned

Ø  Lab extraction of DNA

Ø  Students participate in a project of their choice

Ø  Section assessments

Ø  End of  chapter assessments

Ø  Foldable of how DNA changes to proteins p288

Ø  PowerPoint on each chapter

Ø  chromosomal disorders

Ø  Related Worksheets

 

Product:

Ø  Students work on symposium presentations

Ø  Students draw and describe steps of protein formation (foldable)

Ø  Portfolio: Students participate in any one of the project

Cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease and present it to the class

Or

Research Huntington’s disease, Polydactyly and hypercholesterolemia and present it to the class

Or

Polygenic inheritance

 

Project based assessment : Modeling recombinant DNA or RNA transcription Real life application of genetic engineering

The Human Genome Project

Affects:

Ø  NGSS/FCAT questions on related topic

Ø  Paper pencil/ Study.com/ online assessment

Ø  Chap 11 on Tue Jan 16, Chap 12 Jan 22

Ø  Chap 13 & 14 Project based assessment Jan 26


Subject: Biology                                Grade:9     

UNIT 5:  Evolution 
Chapter 15:  Darwin's Theory of Evolution
Chapter 16:  Evolution of Populations
Chapter 17:  The History of Life
Chapter 18:  Classification

Time Frame: January 29- Feb 16, 2018

Content:

Chapter 15

Section 15-1: The Puzzle of Life's Diversity
 During his travels, Charles Darwin made numerous observations and collected evidence that led him to propose a revolutionary hypothesis about the way life changes over time.
 Darwin observed that the characteristics of many animals and plants varied noticeably among the different islands of the Galápagos.
Section 15-2: Ideas That Shaped Darwin's Thinking
 Hutton and Lyell helped scientists realize that Earth is many millions of years old, and the processes that changed Earth in the past are the same processes that operate in the present.
 Lamarck proposed that by selective use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired or lost certain traits during their lifetime. These traits could then be passed on to their offspring. Over time, this process led to change in a species.
 Malthus reasoned that if the human population continued to grow unchecked, sooner or later there would be insufficient living space and food for everyone.
Section 15-3: Darwin Presents His Case
 In artificial selection, nature provides the variation among different organisms, and humans select those variations that they find useful.
 Over time, natural selection results in changes in the inherited characteristics of a population. These changes increase a species' fitness in its environment.
 Darwin argued that living things have been evolving on Earth for millions of years. Evidence for this process could be found in the fossil record, the geographical distribution of living species, homologous structures of living organisms, and similarities in early development.

Chapter 16

Section 16-1: Genes and Variation
 Biologists have discovered that there are two main sources of genetic variation: mutations and the genetic shuffling that results from sexual reproduction.
 The number of phenotypes produced for a given trait depends on how many genes control the trait.
Section 16-2: Evolution as Genetic Change
 Natural selection on single-gene traits can lead to changes in allele frequencies and thus to evolution.
 Natural selection can affect the distributions of phenotypes in any of three ways: directional selection, stabilizing selection, or disruptive selection.
 In small populations, individuals that carry a particular allele may leave more descendants than other individuals, just by chance. Over time, a series of chance occurrences of this type can cause an allele to become common in a population.
 Five conditions are required to maintain genetic equilibrium from generation to generation: there must be random mating; the population must be very large; and there can be no movement into or out of the population, no mutations, and no natural selection.
Section 16-3: The Process of Speciation
 As new species evolve, populations become reproductively isolated from each other.
 Speciation in the Galápagos finches occurred by founding of a new population, geographic isolation, changes in the new population's gene pool, reproductive isolation, and ecological competition.

Chap 17

Section 17-1: The Fossil Record
 The fossil record provides evidence about the history of life on Earth. It also shows how different groups of organisms have changed over time.
 Relative dating allows paleontologists to estimate a fossil's age compared with that of other fossils.
 In radioactive dating, scientists calculate the age of a sample based on the amount of remaining radioactive isotopes it contains.
 After Precambrian Time, the basic divisions of the geologic time scale are eras and periods.
Section 17-2: Earth's Early History
 Earth's early atmosphere probably contained hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and water.
 Miller and Urey's experiments suggested how mixtures of the organic compounds necessary for life could have arisen from simpler compounds present on a primitive Earth.
 The rise of oxygen in the atmosphere drove some life forms to extinction, while other life forms evolved new, more efficient metabolic pathways that used oxygen for respiration.
 The endosymbiotic theory proposes that eukaryotic cells arose from living communities formed by prokaryotic organisms.
Section 17-3: Evolution of Multicellular Life
 Early in the Paleozoic Era, the fossil record became rich with evidence of many types of marine life.
 During the Devonian, animals began to invade the land.
 The mass extinction at the end of the Paleozoic affected both plants and animals on land and in the seas. As much as 95 percent of the complex life in the oceans disappeared.
 Events during the Mesozoic include the increasing dominance of dinosaurs. The Mesozoic is marked by the appearance of flowering plants.
 During the Cenozoic, mammals evolved adaptations that allowed them to live in various environments—on land, in water, and even in the air.
Section 17-4: Patterns of Evolution
 Six important patterns of macroevolution are mass extinctions, adaptive radiation, convergent evolution, coevolution, punctuated equilibrium, and changes in developmental genes.

Chap18

 Linnean system of classification

Meaning and methods of biological classification have changed with the advent of evolutionary theory and modern molecular methods of comparison. Students will also read about and three-domain systems. 

The Three Domains of Life:changes to the five-kingdom system, including the six-kingdom

A Tree of Life Cladogram (from the American Museum of Natural History)
The Missing Link (A classroom activity from NOVA)
What is Cladistics? (an explanation of cladograms)

Ø  Identify different types of fossils and how they are formed

Ø  Walk Through 4.5 Billion years of Earth’s Existence( Major events of geological time scale)

Ø  Review and Analyze modern theories on evolution of life.

Ø  Explain evolution in terms of facts, hypostheses,a nd theories

Ø  Explain Charles Darwin’s contribution and scientific accomplishments

Ø  Explain the role of Natural selection in convergent and divergent evolution

Ø  Distinguish evolutionary relationships of primates

Ø  Identify major  anatomical changes in hominids during human evolution

Ø  Explain what Islamic point of view on evolution

Ø  Explain how evolutionary relationship are determined and compare the six kingdoms of organisms

Process:

Ø  Word wall: vocabulary words for unit

Ø  Read Unit 5 chap 15-8 when assigned

Ø  Activity : Let’s Take a Walk Through 4.5 Billion years of Earth’s Existence

Ø  PowerPoint on anatomical changes in hominids during human evolution

Ø  Handouts on geological time period

Ø  End of  chapter assessments practice/ questions

Ø  Section assessments

Ø  Related Worksheets

 

Product:

Ø  Students create charts on geographical time scale

Ø  Foldable : Charles Darwin and Natural selection

Ø  Students compare Scientific evolution and Islamic view on evolution

 

Affects:

Ø  Quiz questions on related topic

Ø  Paper pencil/ Study.com/ online assessment

Ø  Chap 15 & 16 on Feb 6,

Ø  Chap 17 & 18 Feb 16

Differentiated Lesson Plan

Subject: Biology                                Grades: 9-12    

Unit 7

Chapter 22:  Plant Diversity
Chapter 23:  Roots, Stems, and Leaves
Chapter 24:  Reproduction of Seed Plants
Chapter 25:  Plant Responses and Adaptations

Time Frame: February 19, - Mar 9, 2018

Content:

The student will

Ø  Compare and contrast characteristics of algae and plants

Ø  Identify the plant kingdom divisions

Ø  Identify the structure and characteristics of non vascular plants, vascular  seed plants and flowering plants

Ø  Compare and contrast different groups of non vascular plants

Ø  Identify and evaluate the structural adaptations of plants to their land environment

Ø  Describe alternation of generation in land plants

Ø  Analyze the advantage of seed and fruit production

Ø  Identify the major type of plant hormones and the different type of plant responses

Ø  Identify the major type of plant cells and distinguish among functions of different type of plant tissues

Ø  Describe and compare the structure and function of root stem and leaf

Ø  Survey and identify methods of reproduction, growth and life cycle of mosses, ferns, conifers and flowering plants

Ø  Identify the organs of a flower and observe how  photoperiodism influences flowering

Process:

Ø  Vocabulary words for unit

Ø  Read Unit 7 chap 22-25 when assigned

Ø  Concept map: Non seed vascular plants

Ø  Students prepare a flow chart diagram that depicts alternation of generation.

Ø  Students model nonvascular plants: a three dimensional presentation of  hepaticophytes, anthocerophytes, and bryophytes with description of the characteristic features of each of their models.

Ø  Minilab: p 589 comparing monocots and dicot

Ø  Students collect leaves and seed and create a table and compare the distinguishing Characteristics of Monocots and Dicots

Ø  Research about the advantages of seed production

Ø  Xylem cells: students see wet mount of wood shavings from pencil sharpener Students collect pictures or drawing that show different plant responses glue them on the construction paper and write captions for each one.

 

Product:

Ø  Home Work: Related Worksheets

 

Affects:

Ø  Assessments on Chap 22 & 25  Material on Feb 26, Chap 23 & 24 on  Mar 8

Ø  Paper pencil assessment/Study.com assessment

Ø  NINE WEEKS EXAM FRIDAY MAR 9

Ø  Symposium Mar 14